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Old October 17th, 2006, 08:00 AM  
Whisper
Ancient Gmod
 
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Name: Kodie
Join Date: June 30, 2004
Location: Van Island, BC
Age: 29
Gender: Male
Blog Entries: 4
Default Re: Scitsophrinia.....???

Quote:
Originally Posted by -[[NeverLetGo]]- View Post
No offense, but how can you misspell Schizophrenia when it's right on the page before this forum? 0.o?
it dosent matter obivously you knew what he was trying to say
its not a big deal
I can't spell either

I can't really tell you anything more thens already been said like there is a chance you can get it and it being in your family already increases that chance (similar to me with cancer) but its not written in stone
theres still a very good chance you'll never have it


Wikipedia:

Genetic and environmental influences

While the reliability of the schizophrenia diagnosis introduces difficulties in measuring the relative effect of genes and environment (for example, symptoms overlap to some extent with severe bipolar disorder or major depression), there is evidence to suggest that genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors can act in combination to result in diagnosis of schizophrenia[15].

The extent to which these factors influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia is debated widely, and currently, controversial. Schizophrenia is likely to be a diagnosis of complex inheritance (analogous to diabetes or high blood pressure). Thus, it is likely that several genes interact to generate risk for it[16]. This, combined with disagreements over which research methods are best, or how data from genetic research should be interpreted, has led to differing estimates over genetic contribution.
[edit]

Genetic

There is substantial evidence that the diagnosis of schizophrenia has a heritable component (some estimates are as high as 80%). Current research suggests that environmental factors play a significant role in the expression of any genetic disposition towards schizophrenia (i.e. if someone has the genes that increase risk, this will not automatically result in a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life). A recent review of the genetic evidence has suggested a more than 28% chance of one identical twin obtaining the diagnosis if the other already has it. There is currently a great deal of effort being put into molecular genetic studies of schizophrenia, which attempt to identify specific genes which may increase risk. Because of this, the genes that are thought to be most involved can change as new evidence is gathered.

Environmental

There is considerable evidence indicating that stressful life events cause or trigger schizophrenia.[21] Childhood experiences of abuse or trauma have also been implicated as risk factors for a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life.[22] [23] [24]

There is also consistent evidence that negative attitudes towards individuals with (or with a risk of developing) schizophrenia can have a significant adverse impact. In particular, critical comments, hostility, authoritarian and intrusive or controlling attitudes (termed 'high expressed emotion' by researchers) from family members have been found to correlate with a higher risk of relapse in schizophrenia across cultures.[25] It is not clear whether such attitudes play a causal role in the onset of schizophrenia, although those diagnosed in this way may claim it to be the primary causal factor. The research has focused on family members but also appears to relate to professional staff in regular contact with clients.[26] While initial work addressed those diagnosed as schizophrenic, these attitudes have also been found to play a significant role in other mental health problems.[27] This approach does not blame 'bad parenting' or staffing, but addresses the attitudes, behaviors and interactions of all parties. Some go as far as to criticise the whole approach of seeking to localise 'mental illness' within one individual - the patient - rather than his/her group and its functionality, citing a scapegoat effect.

Factors such as poverty and discrimination also appear to be involved in increasing the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia relapse, perhaps due to the high levels of stress they engender, or faults in diagnostic procedure/assumptions. Racism in society, including in diagnostic practices, and/or the stress of living in a different culture, may explain why minority communities have shown higher rates of schizophrenia than members of the same ethnic groups resident in their home country. The "social drift hypothesis" suggests that the functional problems related to schizophrenia, or the stigma and prejudice attached to them, can result in more limited employment and financial opportunities, so that the causal pathway goes from mental health problems to poverty, rather than, or in addition to, the other direction. Some argue that unemployment and the long-term unemployed and homeless are simply being stigmatised.

One particularly stable and replicable finding has been the association between living in an urban environment and schizophrenia diagnosis, even after factors such as drug use, ethnic group and size of social group have been controlled for.[28] A recent study of 4.4 million men and women in Sweden found an alleged 68%–77% increased risk of diagnosed psychosis for people living in the most urbanized environments, a significant proportion of which is likely to be described as schizophrenia.[29]

One curious finding is that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in winter or spring[30] (at least in the northern hemisphere). However, the effect is not large and it is still not clear to scientists why this may occur.

A study by Sweden's Karolinska Institute and Bristol University in the UK, looked at the medical records of over 700,000 people and calculated that 15.5% of cases of schizophrenia seen in the group may have been due to the patient having a father who was aged over 30 years at their birth, the researchers argue this is due to build up of mutations in the sperm of elder fathers.[20]

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